As for Jung, Frye was uninterested about the collective unconscious on the grounds of feeling it was unnecessary: since the unconscious is unknowable it cannot be studied. While acknowledging the grave weaknesses of much Jungian writing on literature as “unsubtle and rigid application of preconceived psychological notions and schemes” resulting in “particularly ill-judged or distorted readings,” van Meurs still finds that “sensitively, flexibly and cautiously used, Jungian psychological theory may stimulate illuminating literary interpretations” (14-15). He notes that Singer’s Unholy Bible: A Psychological Interpretation of William Blake (1970), though oversimplified in its psychobiographical approach and its treatment of characters as psychological projections of the author, does make original use in a literary context of such Jungian techniques of dream interpretation as “amplification” and of such fantasy-evoking procedures as “active imagination.”. Wate r: birth-death-resurrection; creation; purification and redemption; fertility and growth. • He says literature is not reflection of life not expression of personality. Vincent B. Leitch. And the 1980s saw a new, suggestive, and controversial direction in archetypal studies of literature: the feminist. Martin's: Certainly criticism as we find it in learned journals and scholarly • Segal, Robert A. Jung most frequently used “myth” (or “mythologem”) for the narrative expression, “on the ethnological level” (Collected 9, pt. • Frye wanted to develop a unifying theory of criticism something like the Darwinian theory of evolution for literature. Frye’s work helped displace New Criticism as the major mode of analyzing literary texts, before giving way to structuralism and semiotics . Despite his deliberately selective focus on critical works written in English on literary texts that are, for the most part, also written in English, van Meurs, with the early assistance of John Kidd, has collected 902 entries, of which he identifies slightly over 80 as valid and valuable literary criticism. White: light, purity, innocence, timelessness; [negative: death, terror, supernatural] Each season is aligned with a literary genre: comedy with spring, romance with summer, tragedy with autumn, and satire with winter. As for the tragic, vegetation is of a wild forest, or as being barren. • Frye, Northrop. (m – 07) (O-07). What is Northrop Frye’s contribution to the archetypal criticism? Frye outlines five different spheres in his schema: human, animal, vegetation, mineral, and water. He or she has been cast out of society or has left it on a voluntary basis. Bettina Knapp’s 1984 effort at an authoritative demonstration of archetypal literary criticism exemplified this pattern. 4 Seasons represent variations of the 'Monomyth': Spring (Comedy) Summer (Romance) Autumn (Tragedy) Winter (Irony & Satire) The archetypes are related by the theme of The quintessential journey archetype in Western culture is arguably Homer’s Odyssey Example: Edna learns to swim in Kate Chopin's "The Awakening". Sciences like Physics and Chemistry can be learned. Frazer’s and Jung’s texts formed the basis of two allied but ultimately different courses of influence on literary history. Anatomy of Criticism:, General Interest ( Pandavs, Ram-Sita-laxman, Sugreve, Duke, Orlando, Rosalind in As You Like It, tramps in Godot, …) This last text explicitly named the movement and demonstrated its appropriation of archetypal theory for feminist ends in aesthetics, analysis, art, and religion, as well as in literature. Thus “archetype” is recognized as the “tendency to form and reform images in relation to certain kinds of repeated experience,” which may vary in individual cultures, authors, and readers (Lauter and Rupprecht 13-14). Criticism deals with the arts and may well be something o£ an art itself, but it does not follow that it must be un-systematic. For instance, in The Tempest, Shakespeare borrowed from a manuscript by William Strachey that detailed an actual shipwreck of the Virginia-bound 17th-century English sailing vessel Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda. According to this argument the dilemma Frye’s archetypal criticism faces with more contemporary literature, and that of post-modernism in general, is that genres and categories are no longer distinctly separate and that the very concept of genres has become blurred, thus problematizing Frye’s schema. • Abrams, M. H. "Archetypal Criticism." Spring - rebirth; genre/comedy. Have with You to Madison Avenue or The Flush-Profile of Literature by Marshall McLuhan [Review of Northrop Frye’s 1957 Anatomy of Criticism] 1 It is natural for the literary man to underestimate the relevance of Professor Frye’s archetypal approach to literature. Frye died in 1991. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Northrop Frye, Bedford/St. On a general level, Jung’s and Frye’s theorizings about archetypes, however labeled, overlap, and boundaries are elusive, but in the disciplines of literature the two schools have largely ignored each other’s work. The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. Fort Worth: HBJ, 1993. Example: Christian's quest for salvation in John Bunyan's "The Pilgrim's Progress". Northrop Frye: Two publishing events at the beginning of the 1990s in the United States may signal the coming of age of this kind of archetypal criticism through its convergence with postmodern critical thought, along with a commensurate insistence on its roots in the depth psychology of Jung: the reissue of Morris Philipson’s 1963 Outline of a Jungian Aesthetic and the appearance of Karin Barnaby and Pellegrino D’Acerino’s multidisciplinary, multicultural collection of essays, C. G. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture. From the theorists, dissertations, articles, and books, often traditionally academic in orientation, appeared; the productions of the practitioners are chronicled and critiqued in van Meurs’s bibliography. 1: 4), but he distinguishes his concept and use of the term from that of philosophical idealism as being more empirical and less metaphysical, though most of his “empirical” data were dreams. Green: growth, hope, fertility. • Bates, Roland. Frye’s work breaks from both Frazer and Jung in such a way that it is distinct from its anthropological and psychoanalytical precursors. Arguments about the Contemporary Dilemma with Frye’s Archetypal Literary Criticism 1924) “to move beyond clinical inquiry within the consulting room of psychotherapy” to formulate archetypal theory as a multidisciplinary field (Archetypal 1). Fall - death/dying; genre/tragedy. Van Meurs also does a service by resurrecting successful but neglected early studies, such as Elizabeth Drew’s of T. S. Eliot (1949), and discovering value even in reductionist and impressionistic studies, such as June Singer’s of Blake. How do contemporary critics view Frye’s archetypal criticism? Tree: denotes life of the cosmos; growth; proliferation; symbol of immortality; phallic symbol. 3. Example: Val's loss of innocence after settling down at the mercantile store in Tennessee William's "Orpheus Descending". male symbols. (Hamlet, Macbeth, Tom Jones, Moll, … ) Thus criticism evolving from his work is more accurately named “archetypal” and is quite distinct from “myth” criticism. New York: Norton, 2001. Such recurrent items are held to be the result of elemental and universal forms or patterns in the human psyche, whose effective embodiment in a literary work evokes a profound response from the attentive reader, because he or she shares the psychic archetypes expressed by the author. For Frye, the death-rebirth myth that Frazer sees manifest in agriculture and the harvest is not ritualistic since it is involuntary, and therefore, must be done. We cannot learn literature. Archetypal Criticism – Northrop Frye Summary. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. In his remarkable and influential book Anatomy of Criticism (1957), N. Frye developed the archetypal approach into a radical and comprehensive revision of traditional grounds both in the theory of literature and the practice of literary criticism. According to Hillman, that discourse was anticipated by Evangelos Christou’s Logos of the Soul (1963) and extended in religion (David L. Miller’s New Polytheism, 1974), philosophy (Edward Casey’s Imagining: A Phenomenological Study, 1976), mythology (Rafael Lopez-Pedraza’s Hermes and His Children, 1977), psycholinguistics (Paul Kugler’s Alchemy of Discourse: An Archetypal Approach to Language, 1982), and the theory of analysis (Patricia Berry’s Echo’s Subtle Body, 1982). This heuristic distinction was formed, however, solely on psychobiographical grounds: Did the text originate in, and remain principally shaped by, the author’s experience of consciousness and the personal unconscious or his or her experience at the level of the archetypal collective unconscious? (Search for Holy Grail, Search for Sita, Nal-Damaanti, Savitri for Satyakam’s life, Shakuntala in Kalidas, Don Quixote, Jude, …) Richard II, the hero who dies with honor; and many others. Example: Simon from William Golding's "The Lord of the Flies". Example: Romeo and Juliet from William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet". These critics tended to emphasize the occurrence of mythical patterns in literature, on the assumption that myths are closer t the elemental archetype than the artful manipulation of sophisticated writers. LITERATURE AT ALBERTS: NORTHROP FRYE: THE ARCHETYPES OF LITERATURE. Ed. Phallic symbols (towers, mountain peaks, snakes, knives, swords, etc.) The Journey: A narrative archetype where the protagonist must overcome a series of obstacles before reaching his or her goal. The term “archetype” can be traced to Plato (arche, “original”; typos, “form”), but the concept gained currency in twentieth-century literary theory and criticism through the work of the Swiss founder of analytical psychology, C. G. Jung (1875-1961). Literary Criticism, there is an idea that believes that Archetypes make up literature’s meaning. (Matsyavatar) For Frye, this "new poetics" is to be found in the principle of the mythological framework, which has come to be known as 'archetypal criticism'. Other forms previously labeled “Jungian” are here subsumed under the term “archetypal” because whatever their immediate specific focus, these forms operate on a set of assumptions derived from Jung and accept the depth-psychological structure posited by Jung. Freud's symbolism/archetypes: Although Shakespeare based many of his characters on existing archetypes from fables and myths (e.g., Romeo and Juliet on Pyramus and Thisbe), Shakespeare's characters stand out as original by their contrast against a complex, social literary landscape. Archetypal criticism was at it most popular in the 1940s and 1950s largely due to the work of condition literary critic Northrop Frye. This page has been accessed 23,131 times. 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